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塑料大棚宜机化栽培模式对番茄生长及产量品质的影响
王春玲1,2,王丹3,宋卫堂1,杨冬艳3*
0
(1.中国农业大学 水利与土木工程学院,北京 100083;2.塔里木大学 水利与建筑工程学院,新疆 阿拉尔 843300;3.宁夏农林科学院 园艺研究所,银川 750002)
摘要:
探讨宁夏地区塑料大棚宜机化种植模式对番茄植株生长和产量品质的影响效果。在大棚内采用不同垄距(190 cm (A1)和210 cm(A2))与不同密度(1 800株/667m2(B1)、2 200株/667 m2(B2)、2 500株/667 m2(B3)),单(H1)、双(H2)行种植与不同密度组合的栽培方式分别进行2个茬口(2019年夏秋茬、2020年早春茬)的番茄种植,研究2种栽培模式下番茄的生长和产量品质特征。结果表明:垄距为190 cm时,番茄的生长及产量、品质等指标优于垄距210 cm;A1B1组合番茄产量、平均单果质量最高,分别为8 841 kg/667 m2、171.8 g,比A2B1处理分别高35.3%和9.4%;当垄距相同时,低种植密度处理的番茄果实可溶性糖含量显著高于高种植密度。在垄距为190 cm条件下,进行单、双行栽培模式试验发现,在下午时段(15:00—17:00)单行西侧的番茄植株透光率最高,显著高于单行东侧和双行的东、西两侧;第1、2、3垄的单行东侧番茄透光率分别高于各垄双行东侧35.6%、20.3%、18.2%。单、双行种植模式番茄的产量呈现密度增加产量降低的趋势;当密度分别为B1、B2、B3时,单行产量比双行产量分别高12.8%、19.4%、10.2%;并且单行模式下番茄维生素C含量显著高于双行。综上,在宁夏地区塑料大棚内夏秋茬和早春茬番茄宜采用垄距为190 cm,密度为1 800株/667 m2的单行种植模式。
关键词:  番茄  宜机化  栽培模式  产量  品质
DOI:10.11841/j.issn.1007-4333.2024.08.18
投稿时间:2023-11-10
基金项目:宁夏回族自治区科技创新领军人才资助项目(2021GKLRLX11);农业高质量发展和生态保护科技创新示范项目( NGSB-2021-04 );国家大宗蔬菜产业技术体系(CARS-23-G23)
Influence of plastic shed on the growth and yield quality of tomato under the suitable mechanized cultivation model
WANG Chunling1,2, WANG Dan3, SONG Weitang1, YANG Dongyan3*
(1.College of Water Resources and Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China;2.College of Water Resources and Architecture Engineering, Tarim University, Alar 843300, China;3.Institute of Horticultural Resources, Ningxia Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Yinchuan 750002, China)
Abstract:
In order to explore the effect of the plastic greenhouse suitable mechanized cultivation mode on tomato plant growth and yield quality in Ningxia region, different ridge and spacing distances (190 (A1), 210 cm (A2)) + different densities (1 800 (B1), 2 200 (B2), and 2 500 plants/667 m2 (B3)), single (H1) and double (H2) row planting + different densities were designed. Cultivation was carried out for two stubbles (summer and fall stubble in 2019 and early spring stubble in 2020) to study the growth and yield quality characteristics of tomato under the two cultivation models. The results showed that the growth, yield, quality and quality of tomato were better at 190 cm spacing than those at 210 cm spacing. The yield and average single fruit weight of tomato were the highest (8 841 kg/667 m2 and 171 g), which were 35.3% and 9.4% higher than those of the A2B1 treatment, respectively. When the spacing of row was the same, the soluble sugar content of tomato fruits at low planting densities was significantly higher than that of the high planting density treatment. Under the condition of 190 cm spacing of rows, the single and double row cultivation pattern test was carried out, and it was found that in the afternoon time (15:00 -17:00) the tomato plants in the west side of the single row had the highest light transmittance, which was significantly higher than that in the east side of the single row and in the east and west sides of the double rows. The light transmittances of the tomatoes in the east side of the single row in the 1st, 2nd and 3th row were higher than that of the east side of the double row of the various row by 35.6%, 20.3% and 18.2%, respectively. The yield of tomato in single and double row planting mode showed the trend of decreasing yield with increasing density. When the densities were B1, B2 and B3, the yields of single-row planting were higher than that of double-row planting by 12.8%, 19.4% and 10.2%, respectively, and the VC content of tomato in single-row planting modes was significantly higher than that of double-row planting. In conclusion, the single-row planting pattern with the spacing of 190 cm and the density of 1 800 plants per 667 m2 was suitable for summer-autumn and early-spring stubble tomatoes in plastic greenhouses in Ningxia.
Key words:  tomato  mechanization  cultivation pattern  yield  quality