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基于管理者偏好的京郊农场生态景观建设与优化对策
安瑜,范顺祥,乔玉辉,刘云慧*
0
(中国农业大学 生物多样性与有机农业北京市重点实验室,北京 100193)
摘要:
为更好推动农场生态景观建设及相关鼓励政策的制定提供科学依据,对京郊46家果园农场(35家有机果园,11家常规果园)进行调研,以期了解当前经营性农场生态景观现状特征及农场管理者的认知态度、景观偏好和参与生态补偿意愿。结果表明:多数农场建设偏重生产、对景观和生态考虑甚少,景观效果较差;有机农场管理者对生态用地的了解程度显著高于常规农场,但这2类农场的管理者均有通过生态景观建设来获得多种服务的意愿;超过50%的农场管理者偏向于建设花草类生态植被,并倾向于将其建设在农场边界或田块之间以减少占用耕地;90%以上的农场管理者有参与生态补偿的意愿,并希望由政府提供5年以上的资金补贴;农场类型和管理模式影响生态景观建设参与面积的选择,有机农场、企业或合作社经营性农场更能够接受占用超过5%的土地面积建设生态景观。因此,强化农场管理者生态理念和技术培训,以政府作为主要补偿来源提高对花草类生态用地的生态补偿,将有助于推动生态农场生境景观建设和生态系统服务的提升。
关键词:  生态农场  生态用地  景观偏好  农场管理者  京郊果园  生态补偿
DOI:10.11841/j.issn.1007-4333.2024.04.25
投稿时间:2023-08-18
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2023YFD1400800);国家自然科学基金项目(41871186)
Ecological landscape construction and optimization strategy of suburban Beijing farm based on managers’ preference
AN Yu, FAN Shunxiang, QIAO Yuhui, LIU Yunhui*
(Beijing Key Laboratory of Biodiversity and Organic Farming, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China)
Abstract:
Reasonable construction and protection of ecological landscape at farm scale to maintain relevant landscape services is an important content of ecological farm construction. In order to promote the construction of ecological farm ecological landscape and provide a scientific basis for the formulation of relevant encouraging policies, this study carried out an investigation on 46 orchard farms (35 organic farms, 11 conventional farms) in suburban Beijing to understand the current characteristics of the ecological landscape in operational farms. Farmers’ attitude, landscape preference and their willingness to participate in ecological compensation were explored. The results showed that: Most farms concern more on production and have little consideration on landscape and ecological conservation, resulting in poor landscape effect. Organic farm managers have a significantly better understanding on ecological land than conventional farm managers. However, both of them hope to obtain better landscape services through constructing ecological landscape elements; More than 50% of farm managers prefer to build ecological land with flower plants, and place them at farm boundaries or between fields for land saving. There are more than 90% of farm managers are willing to accept ecological compensation, and expect more than five years financial subsidies provided by government; Farm type and management model affect the decision on the area of ecological landscape construction. Organic farms, enterprises or cooperative farms are more inclined to use more than 5% of the land area for ecological landscape construction. Therefore, strengthening the training on farmer’s awareness and practice management on ecological conservation and promoting ecological compensation on flowering ecological land by government are important strategies to encourage the construction of ecological landscape elements for the improvement of ecosystem services in ecological farms.
Key words:  ecological farm  ecological land  landscape preference  farm manager  orchard in Beijing suburb  ecological compensation