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CO2浓度升高背景下氮形态对小麦光合性能及产量的影响
谭世超1,潘虎强1,2,卫琼茹1,牛梦姣1,刘翠平1,张士宇1,郑亮1,齐丽彬3*,熊淑萍1*
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(1.河南农业大学 农学院/作物生长发育调控教育部重点实验室,郑州 450046;2.陕西省农业技术推广总站,西安 710003;3.三门峡职业技术学院,河南 三门峡 472000)
摘要:
为探究大气CO2浓度升高背景下不同形态氮肥对小麦的光合性能及产量的影响,利用开顶式气室(OTC),采用二因素完全区组试验设计,设置400 μmol/mol(正常大气浓度,C)、600 μmol/mol(高于正常大气浓度,E)2个CO2浓度和硝态氮(NO3--N,A)、铵态氮(NH4+-N,N) 2种氮肥形态处理,测定不同处理组合下小麦花后不同时间旗叶净光合速率(Pn)、胞间CO2浓度(Ci)、气孔导度(Gs)、蒸腾速率(Tr)、株高、地上部生物量及产量。2年结果表明,高浓度CO2处理(E)可显著提高小麦旗叶PnCi,而对旗叶GsTr均有显著抑制作用,小麦的株高、地上部生物量及产量显著升高。高浓度CO2条件下,2种氮形态处理的小麦光合参数和产量指标均具有显著差异。高浓度CO2处理(E)中,施用NH4+-N(A)的小麦地上部生物量、株高、产量比施用NO3--N处理(N)分别增加5.00%~11.95%、1.92%~3.59%、7.17%~8.26%,穗粒数增加4.41%~5.43%。NH4+-N处理(A)的小麦旗叶PnTr分别比NO3--N 处理升高7.91%~27.48%、4.91%~27.48%。综上,高浓度CO2条件下施用NH4+-N可有效提升小麦旗叶的光合能力,使植株地上部生物量和产量升高。
关键词:  小麦  CO2浓度升高  氮形态  光合作用  产量
DOI:10.11841/j.issn.1007-4333.2024.04.11
投稿时间:2023-10-30
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(32372239);河南省重大科技项目(221100110800)
Effects of different nitrogen forms on the photosynthetic performance and yield of wheat under the background of elevated atmospheric CO2
TAN Shichao1, PAN Huqiang1,2, WEI Qiongru1, NIU Mengjiao1, LIU Cuiping1, ZHANG Shiyu1, ZHENG Liang1, QI Libin3*, XIONG Shuping1*
(1.College of Agronomy/Key Laboratory of Regulating and Controlling Crop Growth and Development of Ministry of Education, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450046, China;2.Shaanxi Provincial Agricultural Technology Extension Station, Xi’an 710003, China;3.Sanmenxia Vocational and Technical College,Sanmenxia 472000, China)
Abstract:
To investigate the effects of different nitrogen forms on the photosynthetic performance and yield of wheat under the background of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, this study utilized an open-top chamber (OTC) and employed a two-factor completely randomized design. Various combinations with two CO2 concentrations, 400 μmol/mol (current atmospheric concentration, C) and 600 μmol/mol (simulated elevated concentration, E), and two nitrogen fertilizer forms, nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N, A) and ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N, N), were employed as treatments. The net photosynthetic rate (Pn), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration rate (Tr) of flag leaves, plant height, aboveground biomass, and yield were measured at different time after anthesis for wheat under different treatment combinations. The results from the 2-year study demonstrated that the elevated CO2 concentration (E) significantly increased the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) of wheat flag leaves. However, it had a significant inhibitory effect on stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration rate (Tr) of the flag leaves. Furthermore, the elevated CO2 concentration significantly enhanced plant height, aboveground biomass and yield. Under the elevated CO2 treatment (E), the above-ground biomass, plant height and yield of wheat applied with NH4+-N (A) respectively increased by 5.00%-11.95%, 1.92%-3.59% and 7.17%-8.26% when compared with those of wheat applied with NO3--N, and the number of grains per spike also increased by 4.41%-5.43%. There were differences discovered in the related parameters of photosynthesis under NH4+-N treatment compared to those under NO3--N treatment. The Pn and Tr of flag leaves were increased by 7.91%-27.48% and 4.91%-27.48%, respectively. In conclusion, the application of NH4+-N under elevated CO2 is conducive to improving the photosynthetic capacity of wheat flag leaves, which can significantly increase above-ground biomass and yield of plants.
Key words:  wheat  elevated CO2 concentration  nitrogen forms  photosynthesis  yield